Beth (b) Stanza (9-16)
When a young person and the world intersect, it can be an overwhelming experience. How many times does the world win! The author of Psalm 119 (Daniel, as I have proposed) either finds himself, or in later reflection found himself, bombarded by the allurements of the world. With few exceptions, the Jews who were deported, were acclimating to their new life and being enculturated into their new world, not unlike a young person who goes off to university. Far from Jerusalem, far from mother and father, far from Torah’s presence and thus God’s presence, the temptations were all around.
After the opening stanza, which focused on the importance of dependent obedience, the Psalmist begins this stanza with a related and all-important question: How can a young man keep his way pure? The remainder of the stanza deals with that question one way or another. “All the basics of personal sanctification are variously integrated into the curriculum of real life: God, the gracious Teacher; the psalmist, the dependent disciple; and the Textbook, the sufficient Word” (Zemek).
The Question and Answer Framework (9)
9 How can a young man keep his way pure?
By keeping it according to Your word.
The question relates to living a pure life. Can you imagine Daniel asking this question, living in Babylon? But the question is rhetorical, he knows the answer, “By keeping it according to Your Word.” The standard of a pure life is the Word of God.
Seek the Lord (10)
10 With all my heart I have sought You;
Do not let me wander from Your commandments.
“With all my heart” means “with all that I am, with all sincerity.” J.J. Perowne said, “It is to me no merely outward rule of conduct: it is a power and a life within.”
His humility is striking, “this is my heart, this is my pursuit, but O God, I do not trust myself!” He knows what he is, but he also knows what he is capable of. He needs the Lord to tether him to Himself.
“The man of God exerts himself, but he does not trust himself. His heart is in his walking with God; but he knows that even his whole strength is not enough to keep him right unless his King shall be his keeper, and he who made the commands shall make him constant in obeying them” (Spurgeon).
All I have to do is stop listening for a minute and the spirit of the age is right there to have my ear! A passion for God one minute, a passion for the world the next! How vulnerable we are!
Treasure and Store His Word (11)
11 Your word I have treasured in my heart,
That I may not sin against You.
When the Word is treasured and stored, it provides a great armory against wrong thinking, wrong feeling and wrong actions. To keep our life pure according to God’s Word, we must seek God in His Word and store His Word up in our hearts. The Word is ammunition, threats and promises, to keep us from sinning. The Word shapes our minds and our life. It is the great antidote to sinning against God.
Worship and learn (12)
12 Blessed are You, O LORD;
Teach me Your statutes.
The Psalmist, for all his commitment and dedication, is the learner, the disciple and God, through His Word, is the Great Teacher. God is the source of truth, knowledge and wisdom. Here is the great pattern for our worship services: Sing His praise and then cry out, “teach me.”
Proclaim what is learned (13)
13 With my lips I have told of
All the ordinances of Your mouth.
This is not only worship and praise, but also proclamation. Think of Daniel, taking it upon himself to proclaim what he had been learning to his fellow exiles. Proclaiming what we have learned strengthens us. By the way, he is not merely sharing his own personal insights, he is telling God’s words from God’s own mouth.
John Goldingay notes, “Proclaiming them is another indication of my commitment to them. . . When we take things on our lips they become part of us; when other people have heard us say these things, it becomes shameful to do something other than what our lips have said.”
Rejoice in the Word Lifestyle (14)
14 I have rejoiced in the way of Your testimonies,
As much as in all riches.
The NET puts it like this, “I rejoice in the lifestyle prescribed by your rules as if they were riches of all kinds.” He “rejoices (which is an emotion), he exults, takes pleasure in,” these feelings for God’s Word influence his behavior. He rejoices as “in all riches” (cf. Dan. 2:46-48; 5:16-17, 29). He knows what the Word does in him and for him. The more convinced we are of Scripture’s effectual power, the more we will love it and rejoice in it.
Meditate on the Word (15)
15 I will meditate on Your precepts
And regard Your ways.
What fills our minds moves the emotions; what moves the emotions, motivates the will. Meditation and “fixing our eyes” on God’s ways is necessary every day.
Delight in the Word (16)
16 I shall delight in Your statutes;
I shall not forget Your word.
“I will delight myself” reflects the use of a strong Hebrew term. Most English translations go with “delight.” The verb stem is reflexive and indicates it is repeated. Once again, if one is to keep one’s way pure, there must be deliberate, disciplined delighting in the Word.
Not forgetting the Word underscores the importance of this. Forgetfulness is the open door of sin which can lead to apostasy. To not forget, in the OT, is an ethical matter. To remember is an ethical matter. Delighting in the Word requires that we remember the Word, not forget it or neglect it.
Young people, become immersed in the Word. In an age not unlike Daniel’s in terms of sensuality and worldliness, he found that abiding in the Word was key to keeping his life pure.
How do we keep our lives according to the Word? We seek Him, we treasure and store the Word, we worship, we learn, we proclaim, we rejoice, we meditate and delight ourselves in His Word.
The Word has awesome purifying power!
Aleph (a) Stanza (1-8)
The first stanza in the Psalm stands in the same relationship to the rest of Psalm 119 as Psalm 1 does to the rest of the Psalter. There is the same emphasis on the joy of obedience to the Word.
The Blessedness of Obedience
1 How blessed are those whose way is blameless,
Who walk in the law of the Lord.
2 How blessed are those who observe His testimonies,
Who seek Him with all their heart.
3 They also do no unrighteousness;
They walk in His ways.
Just as Psalm 1 begins with beatitude, so also here. We could translate “How blessed” as “How rewarding is the life.” Most of the time we think sin will make us happy, but it is sin that makes us miserable and obedience that makes us happy.
The blessed man is described as, “Whose way is blameless/Who walks in the Law of the LORD.” This is integrity of heart and practical obedience to God’s Law. This obedience is not just formal obedience, this is wholehearted pursuit of God through His Word. “His whole heart is engaged to know and love more and more” (Charles Bridges). It is not as though the believer is ever perfect in holiness and heart, but what he is on the inside, he is on the outside.
The Authority of the Word
4 You have ordained Your precepts,
That we should keep them diligently.
The Psalmist does not look at the Word or the Law as an abstract moral code, he sees the precepts of the Word as being ordained by God Himself. Diligent obedience to the Word is diligent obedience to God Himself.
A Sincere Plea and Commitment
5 Oh that my ways may be established
To keep Your statutes!
6 Then I shall not be ashamed
When I look upon all Your commandments.
7 I shall give thanks to You with uprightness of heart,
When I learn Your righteous judgments.
8 I shall keep Your statutes;
Do not forsake me utterly!
The Psalmist sees the authority of the Word. He sees its beauty for his life and therefore he longs for and cries out for communion with God. “This passionate exclamation pulsates with conviction, strong desire, and an acute awareness of dependence” (Zemek). He pleads with God for help, knowing the result of the divine help will be avoiding the shame and disgrace of a disobedient life. He desires the blessedness of obedience and a good conscience as opposed to the disgrace of sinful rebellion.
This enablement of grace would not lead to self-congratulation, but praise. His resolution is not mere self-determination, there is an awareness of inability and utter dependence on grace. He is, “Firm in his purpose, but distrustful of his strength” (Bridges, 14-15). He understands his own weakness and vulnerability and pleads that God would not abandon him. Without God’s perpetual presence and empowerment, his life is nothing.
What are our priorities and desires? Do we desire to know and obey God better? Do we want to be happy enough to seek Him and obey His Word?
If these priorities and desires are ours, we will consciously be dependent on God for the empowerment of His grace. Jesus, in the New Covenant, gives us His Spirit and promises empowerment to walk in obedience (Ezek. 36:27). Charles Bridges comments, “He who commands our duty, perfectly knows our weakness, and he who feels his own weakness is fully encouraged to depend upon the power of the Savior.”
Who wrote it?
Attempting to identify the authorship of this Psalm is very helpful for interpreting a number of the sections (strophes). Although determining authorship is not ultimately important, it does add some significant interpretations and applications of the Psalm.
There is no superscription identifying the author in Psa 119. It is an anonymous Psalm. Jewish tradition has suggested Ezra, one of his disciples or David. Christian tradition has generally assumed Davidic authorship. It seems clear however, from internal evidence that the author was living under conditions which were hostile to his faith. Franz Delitzsch (who thinks it was written during the Maccabean period) says, “It is natural to suppose that the composition of the Psalm falls in those times of the Greek domination in which the government was hostile, and a large party from among the Jews themselves, that was friendly towards the government, persecuted all decided confessors of the Torah.” In other words, there is the presence of hostility from without and within.
Leslie C. Allen, representing the majority of critical scholarship argues for an exilic or post-exilic author. He notes that the Psalm draws from the Pentateuch, Isaiah, Proverbs and Jeremiah. It also contains a number of Aramaisms and late-Hebrew.
A few considerations make Daniel a good candidate.
Delitzsch is certainly right about the hostility, but it seems that the hostility is directed towards an exile. There is no mention of the Temple (or Tabernacle), sacrifices, etc. The Psalmist seems to be in a strange land. David was from time to time on the run, but ultimately the hostility shown to David was not because of his commitment to Torah, or his faith, but his throne. The Jews in the Maccabean period were dominated in their own homeland. Ezra and his disciples would also have been returnees. The situation which was both hostile and exilic seems to best fit the Babylonian exile, of which Daniel was a deportee.
Internal Evidence for Daniel’s Authorship
In the following columns I compare the book of Daniel with sections of Psalm 119. The parallels seem remarkable to me.
|Daniel 1:8-9 But Daniel made up his mind that he would not defile himself with the king’s choice food or with the wine which he drank; so he sought permission from the commander of the officials that he might not defile himself. 9 Now God granted Daniel favor and compassion in the sight of the commander of the officials,
|Psalm 119:1-2 How blessed are those whose way is blameless, Who walk in the law of the LORD. 2 How blessed are those who observe His testimonies, Who seek Him with all their heart.
Psalm 119:9 How can a young man keep his way pure? By keeping it according to Your word.
Psalm 119:11 Your word I have treasured in my heart, That I may not sin against You.
Psalm 119:30 I have chosen the faithful way; I have placed Your ordinances before me.
Psalm 119:101 I have restrained my feet from every evil way, That I may keep Your word.
|Daniel 1:3-4 Then the king ordered Ashpenaz, the chief of his officials, to bring in some of the sons of Israel, including some of the royal family and of the nobles, 4 youths in whom was no defect, who were good-looking, showing intelligence in every branch of wisdom, endowed with understanding and discerning knowledge, and who had ability for serving in the king’s court; and he ordered him to teach them the literature and language of the Chaldeans.||Psalm 119:19 I am a stranger in the earth; Do not hide Your commandments from me.|
|Daniel 3:8 For this reason at that time certain Chaldeans came forward and brought charges against the Jews.
Daniel 6:4-5 Then the commissioners and satraps began trying to find a ground of accusation against Daniel in regard to government affairs; but they could find no ground of accusation or evidence of corruption, inasmuch as he was faithful, and no negligence or corruption was to be found in him. 5 Then these men said, “We will not find any ground of accusation against this Daniel unless we find it against him with regard to the law of his God.”
|Psalm 119:23 Even though princes sit and talk against me, Your servant meditates on Your statutes.
Psalm 119:78 May the arrogant be ashamed, for they subvert me with a lie; But I shall meditate on Your precepts.
Psalm 119:85 The arrogant have dug pits for me, Men who are not in accord with Your law.
Psalm 119:86 All Your commandments are faithful; They have persecuted me with a lie; help me!
Psalm 119:95 The wicked wait for me to destroy me; I shall diligently consider Your testimonies.
Psalm 119:110 The wicked have laid a snare for me, Yet I have not gone astray from Your precepts.
Psalm 119:157 Many are my persecutors and my adversaries, Yet I do not turn aside from Your testimonies.
Psalm 119:161 Princes persecute me without cause, But my heart stands in awe of Your words.
|Daniel 2:27-28 Daniel answered before the king and said, “As for the mystery about which the king has inquired, neither wise men, conjurers, magicians nor diviners are able to declare it to the king. 28 “However, there is a God in heaven who reveals mysteries, and He has made known to King Nebuchadnezzar what will take place in the latter days. This was your dream and the visions in your mind while on your bed.
|Psalm 119:46 I will also speak of Your testimonies before kings And shall not be ashamed.
It appears that the tone, the petitions, the confessions, et al reflect Daniel and his situation. In other words, the evidence is more than just linking up individual verses, but rather getting a “feel” for Daniel’s character in the book of Daniel and then seeing that character expressed in the piety and circumstances of the Psalmist.
The “Feel” of Daniel in Psalm 119
|Psalm 119:17 Deal bountifully with Your servant, That I may live and keep Your word.||Daniel 1:12-16 12 “Please test your servants for ten days, and let us be given some vegetables to eat and water to drink. 13 “Then let our appearance be observed in your presence and the appearance of the youths who are eating the king’s choice food; and deal with your servants according to what you see.” 14 So he listened to them in this matter and tested them for ten days. 15 At the end of ten days their appearance seemed better and they were fatter than all the youths who had been eating the king’s choice food. 16 So the overseer continued to withhold their choice food and the wine they were to drink, and kept giving them vegetables.|
|Psalm 119:29 Remove the false way from me, And graciously grant me Your law.||Daniel 1:4 youths in whom was no defect, who were good-looking, showing intelligence in every branch of wisdom, endowed with understanding and discerning knowledge, and who had ability for serving in the king’s court; and he ordered him to teach them the literature and language of the Chaldeans.|
|Psalm 119:36-37 Incline my heart to Your testimonies And not to dishonest gain. 37 Turn away my eyes from looking at vanity, And revive me in Your ways.||Daniel 2:48 Then the king promoted Daniel and gave him many great gifts, and he made him ruler over the whole province of Babylon and chief prefect over all the wise men of Babylon.
Daniel 5:16 “But I personally have heard about you, that you are able to give interpretations and solve difficult problems. Now if you are able to read the inscription and make its interpretation known to me, you will be clothed with purple and wear a necklace of gold around your neck, and you will have authority as the third ruler in the kingdom.”
|Psalm 119:63 I am a companion of all those who fear You, And of those who keep Your precepts.||Daniel 3:17-18 “If it be so, our God whom we serve is able to deliver us from the furnace of blazing fire; and He will deliver us out of your hand, O king. 18 “But even if He does not, let it be known to you, O king, that we are not going to serve your gods or worship the golden image that you have set up.”|
|Psalm 119:87 They almost destroyed me on earth, But as for me, I did not forsake Your precepts.||Daniel 6:10 Now when Daniel knew that the document was signed, he entered his house (now in his roof chamber he had windows open toward Jerusalem); and he continued kneeling on his knees three times a day, praying and giving thanks before his God, as he had been doing previously.
Daniel 6:16 Then the king gave orders, and Daniel was brought in and cast into the lions’ den. The king spoke and said to Daniel, “Your God whom you constantly serve will Himself deliver you.”
|Psalm 119:98-100 Your commandments make me wiser than my enemies, For they are ever mine. 99 I have more insight than all my teachers, For Your testimonies are my meditation. 100 I understand more than the aged, Because I have observed Your precepts.||Daniel 1:4 youths in whom was no defect, who were good-looking, showing intelligence in every branch of wisdom, endowed with understanding and discerning knowledge, and who had ability for serving in the king’s court; and he ordered him to teach them the literature and language of the Chaldeans.
Daniel 1:19-20 19 The king talked with them, and out of them all not one was found like Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah; so they entered the king’s personal service. 20 As for every matter of wisdom and understanding about which the king consulted them, he found them ten times better than all the magicians and conjurers who were in all his realm.
Daniel 2:24 Therefore, Daniel went in to Arioch, whom the king had appointed to destroy the wise men of Babylon; he went and spoke to him as follows: “Do not destroy the wise men of Babylon! Take me into the king’s presence, and I will declare the interpretation to the king.”
|Psalm 119:119 You have removed all the wicked of the earth like dross; Therefore I love Your testimonies.
|Daniel 6:24 The king then gave orders, and they brought those men who had maliciously accused Daniel, and they cast them, their children and their wives into the lions’ den; and they had not reached the bottom of the den before the lions overpowered them and crushed all their bones.|
|Psalm 119:136 My eyes shed streams of water, Because they do not keep Your law.||Daniel 9:5-6 we have sinned, committed iniquity, acted wickedly and rebelled, even turning aside from Your commandments and ordinances. 6 “Moreover, we have not listened to Your servants the prophets, who spoke in Your name to our kings, our princes, our fathers and all the people of the land.|
|Psalm 119:18 Open my eyes, that I may behold Wonderful things from Your law.
Psalm 119:27 Make me understand the way of Your precepts, So I will meditate on Your wonders.
Psalm 119:169 Let my cry come before You, O LORD; Give me understanding according to Your word.
|Daniel 9:1-3 In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of Median descent, who was made king over the kingdom of the Chaldeans– 2 in the first year of his reign, I, Daniel, observed in the books the number of the years which was revealed as the word of the LORD to Jeremiah the prophet for the completion of the desolations of Jerusalem, namely, seventy years. 3 ¶ So I gave my attention to the Lord God to seek Him by prayer and supplications, with fasting, sackcloth and ashes.|
The internal evidence seems to point most consistently to Daniel. In my studies of Psalm 119, looking at the Psalm through the lens of Daniel in exile has been incredibly helpful in both interpreting and applying the passages. However, since it is anonymous we cannot be dogmatic. But as Professor George Zemek helpfully says, “it is suggested that the reader ‘think Daniel’ as we roam through this sacred territory.”
 George Zemek, The Word of God in the Child of God: Exegetical, Theological, and Homiletical Reflections from Psalm 119.